Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938), also known as Paul Martin Jr., is a Canadian politician who served as the 21st Prime Minister of Canada from December 12, 2003, to February 6, 2006. Martin served as the Member of Parliament for the riding of LaSalle—Émard in Montreal from his election in the 1988 election to his retirement in 2008. He served as Minister of Finance from 1993 to 2002. He oversaw many changes in the financial structure of the Canadian government, and his policies had a direct effect on eliminating the country’s chronic fiscal deficit by reforming various programs including social services. On November 14, 2003, Martin succeeded Jean Chrétien as leader of the Liberal Party and became prime minister on December 12, 2003. After the 2004 election, his Liberal Party retained power, although only as a minority government. Forced by a confidence vote to call the 2006 general election, which he lost, Martin stepped down as parliamentary leader, handing the reins to Bill Graham. The Liberals now assumed the role of official opposition to a new minority government formed by the Conservative Party under Prime Minister Stephen Harper. Martin stayed on as party leader until he resigned on March 18. He was eventually succeeded by Stéphane Dion. Now seen as a global diplomat, Martin continues to contribute on the international arena through a variety of initiatives such as Incentives for Global Health, the not-for-profit behind the Health Impact Fund, where he serves as a member of the Advisory Board. Martin sits as an advisor to Canada’s Ecofiscal Commission.